Power System Modelling And Scripting
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After ten year of experience matured developing PSAT, I felt the need of restarting from scratch and creating a new project for power system analysis. The name of this work in progress is Dome. This project is written in Python, C and Fortran. It is a pure number-crunching command-line application for multi-core 64-bit Unix platforms.
In general, Dome sources are NOT available. The experience with PSAT has taught me that the power system community is simply not responding properly to open source projects. In the last ten years, third-party contributions to PSAT have been very marginal or would have been developed even if PSAT had been not distributed as a free and open source project. On the other hand, I am quite sure that several extensions have been developed but not shared with the PSAT community.
I got to the conclusion that the free and open source paradigm is not attractive for small and closed communities like the power system one. Thus a different software development approach has to be adopted. The idea is that Dome sources are available only to those researchers seriously willing to develop them in some meaningful manner. The resulting code is then included in the project and made available to following developers.
The mission of Dome is to develop novel algorithms, to model new devices and to test emerging technologies. Since power systems are experiencing overall and world-wide changes, this is a good moment for power system research and for the development of unconventional simulation tools.
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a powerful tool for simulating the behavior of structures and systems under different loads and conditions. Abaqus is a widely-used software package for FEA, and it can be used to perform a wide range of simulations: static and dynamic analyses, fatigue assessment, progressive damage analyses of materials and structures, design optimization... However, the process of setting up and running an Abaqus simulation can be time-consuming and error-prone, especially when performing complex simulations or parametric studies.
Modelkit (formerly called Params) is a free and open-source, cross-platform framework for parametric modeling (Ellis 2015). Modelkit integrates two powerful concepts: templates and scripting. Templates are an old method for combining static content with dynamic inputs. Scripting is a relatively new method for automating the process of modeling.
Modelkit offers several advantages compared to other parametric tools that are currently available. Modelkit does not require a knowledge of an extensive API or object-oriented programming structures. Modelkit only requires a basic understanding of programming concepts such as math operations, if-then logic, and looping with arrays. Modelkit is also more capable than other tools because it provides full access to all of the features and power of EnergyPlus. Perhaps the greatest strength of Modelkit is that it makes it easy to swap out entire HVAC systems parametrically in a model.
SolTrace can be used to model parabolic trough collectors, linear Fresnel lens systems, power tower geometries, and point-focus optical systems (dishes and solar furnaces). It displays data as scatter plots and flux maps, and can save data for processing with other software. It also can model optical geometries as a series of stages composed of any number of optical elements that possess attributes including shape, contour, and optical quality. Stages can be either physical or virtual to allow for easier accounting of power and flux throughout the system. A scripting language is provided to allow the user to create parametric runs and additional functionality beyond the core ray-tracing capabilities.
This new version introduces new models for third party ownership, bifacial photovoltaic modules, multiple maximum power point trackers for photovoltaic systems, and accesses the latest solar resource data (PSM V3) from the National Solar Radiation Database. It also includes enhancements to the battery storage and CSP parabolic trough models.
This new model for third party ownership of a photovoltaic system on a residential or commercial property is from the developer's perspective to determine the power price the developer charges the host to meet the developer's costs and return requirements.
Modified the structure by which the tower compute module (cmod_tcsmolten_salt) is called, which affects scripting and API functions. Previously-created LK scripts that are executed using the new SAM release may require modification. The changes occurred in the variable table, in which redundant variables were removed, and the only variable inputs that remain are the minimal set that fully define the system geometry. That is, no calculated parameters are passed as inputs under the new structure. This change simplifies scripting to eliminate the need to provide calculated values as inputs.
Summary: This version adds new capabilities to the photovoltaic, battery storage, concentrating solar power, and wind performance models, as well as new models for solar process heat applications. In addition, major updates to the utility bill calculations allow greater flexiblity for correctly capturing the nuances of complex rate structures. The scripting features have also been improved, and streamlined use of the SAM Software Development Kit (SDK) is possible using the new SDK code generator.
This version adds new capabilities to the photovoltaic, battery storage, and molten salt power tower performance models with a new model for integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) concentrating solar power plants. This version also adds new electricity metering options and other electricity rate improvements to the residential and commercial financial models. It includes a new data browser for tabular results and many enhancements to the LK scripting language.
Clipping losses, nighttime tare losses, and inverter power consumption losses now reported correctly. Previous versions reported losses for one inverter, not the total number of inverters in the system.
Fixed a bug in the energy loss diagram for concentrating solarpower models (CSP) with a large portion of the thermal energy to the power block supplied by the fossil backup system that causedthe energy loss diagram to display an incorrect value for the System Output to Grid quantity.
For the physical trough and generic solar system concentratingsolar power models Thermal Storage page, fixed the units in the thermal storage capacity label. The correct units are MWht, notMWt. This is a mistake in the user interface label and does not affect simulations.
Empirical trough and the generic solar system model: the turbine startup energy calculation was not properly deducting energy for systems without thermal energy storage and with a large turbine thermal startup requirement. For these cases, the error in annual output could be greater than 12% (output went up after the fix), depending on the power block startup energy requirement. The impact for the default values in both the GSS and Empirical trough was minimal.
Bug fix: Night-time inverter parasitic power is now correctly deducted from the total energy. This reduces SAM's annual AC power production by approximately 0.03 %, using the utility scale default system as a reference.
Revision: Tracker power is now specified as a fraction of nameplate capacity. As a result, tracker parasitic power by default scales with system size. Project files from old versions of SAM are upgraded accordingly.
For SAM 2012.5.11, we added one new performance model, madeseveral improvements to algorithms to decrease simulation run times, and made the usual bug fixes, usability improvements, anddocumentation revisions. We re-wrote the flat plate PV simulation engine to reduce computational overhead and remove thedependence on the TRNSYS engine. The new code runs nearly 10 times faster than previous versions of SAM. This will reduce thetime required for parametric and other analyses that require multiple simulations. The new High-X Concentrating Photovoltaic(HCPV) model is a new performance model that replaces the CPV option on the Module page. The new model includes CPV-specificderate factors, an estimate of spectral effects, and is structured to allow us to improve the model as new data andalgorithms for CPV systems becomes available. We have created a set of new report templates for PV, wind, biopower, and geothermalsystems that show a summary of key inputs and results in a PDF document.
Soiling: Added an option for entering monthly soiling derates.The derate is applied equally to all components of the calculated plane-of-array (POA) irradiance before the DC modulepower is calculated. This is different from previous versions of SAM, in which the soiling derate was applied to the DC output ofthe module. The new approach is more consistent with real systems, where soiling blocks irradiance before reaching the module, which both reduces POA irradiance and affects cell operating temperature. The approach in the new version tends toslightly reduce the system's annual output compared to the approach in older versions, assuming a constant soiling derate forall months.
The solar field inlet HTF temperature calculation was correctedto better model plant behavior during shutdown. Previously, the field inlet temperature remained tied to the power block outlettemperature when the solar field was not producing power, but thermal storage was providing energy for power cycle operation.This prevented accurate modeling of nighttime solar field cool down behavior. Potential impacts include: Observed fieldinlet/outlet temperature during nighttime operation for systems with thermal storage or auxiliary fossil backup, required solarfield startup energy
On the Thermal Storage page, an input was added to allow the user to select the auxiliary fossil backup dispatch mode. Options now include Minimum backup level, and Supplementaloperation. Previously, only the Minimum backup level mode was included. The Supplemental operation mode allows fossil backup toprovide thermal energy to the system in addition to thermal energy provided by the solar field or TES. The maximum rate ofenergy delivery is the fraction of design point power specified in the Fossil Fill Fraction inputs under the Thermal StorageDispatch Control group, and the total fossil contribution plus the energy from the field and TES cannot exceed the corresponding Turbine Output Fraction value. Potential impacts include: None for Minimum backup level. For supplemental operation modified fossilbackup control 59ce067264